Gift-Wrap Convex Hull Bounding Polygon

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Gift-Wrap Convex Hull Bounding Polygon

Postby daniel.weck » Fri Jul 22, 2011 8:54 am

I ported a Java implementation of the gift-wrap algorithm to LibGDX. This basically takes a cloud of points (which could consist in a set of Box2D fixtures, for example) and it generates a bounding polygon that is a convex hull (with all the useful inherent properties of non-concave polygons).

Enjoy :)

Code: Select all
Array<Array<Vector2>> polygons; // e.g. existing Box2D fixtures

Array<Vector2> pointsCloud= new Array<Vector2>(polygons.size * 3); // capacity initialization, assuming 3 vertices per polygon (triangles)
for (int j = 0; j < polygons.size; j++) {
    Array<Vector2> polygon = polygons.get(j);
    for (int i = 0; i < polygon.size; i++) {
        Vector2 point = polygon.get(i);

        boolean pointAlreadyInCloud = false;
        for (int k = 0; k < pointsCloud.size; k++) {
            Vector2 pointInCloud = pointsCloud.get(k);
            if (pointInCloud.x == point.x && pointInCloud.y == point.y) {
                pointAlreadyInCloud = true;
        if (!pointAlreadyInCloud)

Array<Vector2> convexHull = BoundingPolygon.createGiftWrapConvexHull(pointsCloud);

Code: Select all
import com.badlogic.gdx.math.Vector2;
import com.badlogic.gdx.utils.Array;

public class BoundingPolygon {

    * Find the convex hull of a point cloud using "Gift-wrap" algorithm - start
    * with an external point, and walk around the outside edge by testing
    * angles. Runs in O(N*S) time where S is number of sides of resulting
    * polygon. Worst case: point cloud is all vertices of convex polygon ->
    * O(N^2). There may be faster algorithms to do this, should you need one -
    * this is just the simplest. You can get O(N log N) expected time if you
    * try, I think, and O(N) if you restrict inputs to simple polygons. Returns
    * null if number of vertices passed is less than 3. Results should be
    * passed through convex decomposition afterwards to ensure that each shape
    * has few enough points to be used in Box2d. May be buggy with colinear
    * points on hull, but we check angle with an equality resolver that always
    * picks the longer edge (this seems to be working, but it sometimes creates
    * an extra edge along a line).
   public static Array<Vector2> createGiftWrapConvexHull(
         Array<Vector2> points) {
      assert (points.size > 2);

      int[] edgeList = new int[points.size];
      int numEdges = 0;
      float minY = Float.MAX_VALUE;
      int minYIndex = points.size;
      for (int i = 0; i < points.size; ++i) {
         Vector2 point = points.get(i);
         if (point.y < minY) {
            minY = point.y;
            minYIndex = i;
      int startIndex = minYIndex;
      int winIndex = -1;
      float dx = -1.0f;
      float dy = 0.0f;
      while (winIndex != minYIndex) {
         float newdx = 0.0f;
         float newdy = 0.0f;
         float maxDot = -2.0f;
         Vector2 point2 = points.get(startIndex);

         for (int i = 0; i < points.size; ++i) {
            if (i == startIndex)
            Vector2 point1 = points.get(i);

            newdx = point1.x - point2.x;
            newdy = point1.y - point2.y;
            float nrm = (float) Math.sqrt(newdx * newdx + newdy * newdy);
            nrm = (nrm == 0.0f) ? 1.0f : nrm;
            newdx /= nrm;
            newdy /= nrm;
            float newDot = newdx * dx + newdy * dy;
            if (newDot > maxDot) {
               maxDot = newDot;
               winIndex = i;
         edgeList[numEdges] = winIndex;

         Vector2 point3 = points.get(winIndex);

         dx = point3.x - point2.x;
         dy = point3.y - point2.y;
         float nrm = (float) Math.sqrt(dx * dx + dy * dy);
         nrm = (nrm == 0.0f) ? 1.0f : nrm;
         dx /= nrm;
         dy /= nrm;
         startIndex = winIndex;
      Array<Vector2> polygon = new Array<Vector2>(numEdges);

      for (int i = 0; i < numEdges; i++) {
         Vector2 point4 = points.get(edgeList[i]);

      if (polygon.size <= 3)
         return polygon;

      float tolerance = 2.0f / 180.0f * (float) Math.PI; // 2 degrees

      Array<Integer> toRemove = null;
      for (int i = 0; i < polygon.size; ++i) {
         int lower = (i == 0) ? (polygon.size - 1) : (i - 1);
         int middle = i;
         int upper = (i == polygon.size - 1) ? (0) : (i + 1);
         Vector2 pointMiddle = polygon.get(middle);
         Vector2 pointLower = polygon.get(lower);
         Vector2 pointUpper = polygon.get(upper);
         float dx0 = pointMiddle.x - pointLower.x;
         float dy0 = pointMiddle.y - pointLower.y;
         float dx1 = pointUpper.x - pointMiddle.x;
         float dy1 = pointUpper.y - pointMiddle.y;
         float norm0 = (float) Math.sqrt(dx0 * dx0 + dy0 * dy0);
         float norm1 = (float) Math.sqrt(dx1 * dx1 + dy1 * dy1);
         if (!(norm0 > 0.0f && norm1 > 0.0f)
               && (toRemove == null || (polygon.size - toRemove.size) > 3)) {
            // Merge identical points

            if (toRemove == null)
               toRemove = new Array<Integer>();
         dx0 /= norm0;
         dy0 /= norm0;
         dx1 /= norm1;
         dy1 /= norm1;
         float cross = dx0 * dy1 - dx1 * dy0;
         float dot = dx0 * dx1 + dy0 * dy1;
         if (Math.abs(cross) < tolerance && dot > 0
               && (toRemove == null || (polygon.size - toRemove.size) > 3)) {
            if (toRemove == null)
               toRemove = new Array<Integer>();
      if (toRemove == null || toRemove.size == 0)
         return polygon;

      for (int i = 0; i < toRemove.size; ++i) {
         int index = toRemove.get(i);
         polygon.removeIndex(index - i);

      return polygon;
Posts: 57
Joined: Mon Mar 21, 2011 8:18 am

Re: Gift-Wrap Convex Hull Bounding Polygon

Postby daniel.weck » Fri Jul 22, 2011 9:06 am

Original source code: ... 41#1436512

License: Microsoft Permissive License (Ms-PL) v1.1
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Joined: Mon Mar 21, 2011 8:18 am

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